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Mechanical Components - Introduction to Sensors

 


Introduction

Pressure Sensor
Pressure Sensors - Motorola
A sensor is a device that produces a measurable response to a change in a physical condition, such as temperature or thermal conductivity, or to a change in chemical concentration. Sensors are particularly useful for making in-situ measurements such as in industrial process control.

Sensors are an important part to any measurement and automation application. The sensor is responsible for converting some type of physical phenomenon into a quantity measurable by a data acquisition (DAQ) system.


Choosing a Sensor

Factors to consider when choosing a sensor.

  • Accuracy - The statistical variance about the exact reading.

  • Calibration - Required for most measuring systems since their readings will drift over time.

  • Cost

  • Environmental - Sensors typically have temperature and/or humidity limits.

  • Range - Limits of measurement or the sensor.

  • Repeatability - The variance in a sensor's reading when a single condition is repeatedly measured.

  • Resolution - The smallest increment the sensor can detect.


Types of Sensors

Sensors are used to measure basic physical phenomena including:

  1. Acceleration - Shock & Vibration.
  2. Angular / Linear Position
  3. Chemical/Gas Concentration
  4. Humidity
  5. Flow Rate
  6. Force
  7. Magnetic Fields
  8. Pressure
  9. Proximity - Spatial Presence
  10. Sound
  11. Temperature
  12. Velocity

 




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